A Systems Classification of Watersheds and Streams
Adequate management and scientific investigation of ecosystems depends on classification of landscape systems based on all significant bio-physical and associated cultural properties. The present classification is a hierarchical system design that can be modeled in terms of a natural system interacting with its level-specific environment. A watershed system in the context is embedded in a landscape environment organized into, for example, zonal and regional systems. A system at any level is classified by its capacity and the capacity of its environment, capacity defining temporally the scope of possible system performances relative to the components, substrate, climate, biota, culture and water.
McCullough, D. 1988. A Systems Classification of Watersheds and Streams. Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission Technical Report 88-3.