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Genetic Variation Associated with Adult Migration Timing in Lineages of Steelhead and Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River

Jan 4, 2024

Abstract

With the discovery of a major effect region (GREB1L, ROCK1) for adult migration timing in genomes of both Chinook Salmon and Steelhead, several subsequent studies have investigated the effect size and distribution of early and late migration alleles among populations in the Columbia River. Here, we synthesize the results of these studies for the major lineages of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead that include highly distinct groups in the interior Columbia River that exhibit atypical life histories from most coastal lineage populations of these two species. Whole-genome studies with high marker density have provided extensive insight into SNPs most associated with adult migration timing, and suites of markers for each species have been genotyped in large numbers of individuals to further validate phenotypic effects. For Steelhead, the largest phenotypic effect sizes have been observed in the coastal lineage (36% of variation for passage timing at Bonneville Dam; 43% of variation for tributary arrival timing) compared to the inland lineage (7.5% of variation for passage timing at Bonneville Dam; 8.4% of variation for tributary arrival timing) that overwinter in freshwater prior to spawning. For Chinook Salmon, large effect sizes have been observed in all three lineages for multiple adult migration phenotypes (Coastal lineage: percentage of variation of 27.9% for passage timing at Bonneville Dam, 28.7% for arrival timing for spawning; Interior ocean type: percentage of variation of 47.6% for passage timing at Bonneville Dam, 39.6% for tributary arrival timing, 77.9% for arrival timing for spawning; Interior stream type: percentage of variation of 35.3% for passage at Bonneville Dam, 9.8% for tributary arrival timing, 4.7% for arrival timing for spawning). Together, these results have extended our understanding of genetic variation associated with life history diversity in distinct populations of the Columbia River, however, much research remains necessary to determine the causal mechanism for this major effect region on migration timing in these species.

Authors

Citation

Narum, S.R., R. Horn, S. Willis, I. Koch, and J. Hess. 2023. Genetic variation associated with adult migration timing in lineages of Steelhead and Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River. Evolutionary Applications. Online at https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.13626.

Date

2023/12/01

Report No.

JournalPost_Narum_etal2023

Media Type

Journal Article